The scrotal temperature is about 3-40 C below the inner body temperature. Testis produces hormones including male hormone testosterone (a steroid hormone) and sperm (spermatozoa). The epididymis is just to the side of testis. Vas deferens are tubes (one on each side) carrying sperm from testes to prostate and run along blood vessels of the testis. Find out more about the testes and scrotum and how to keep them healthy here.

Testis and Scrotum Symptoms


There may not be many symptoms with testis and scrotum conditions. Some of the manifestations are:

    • Pain in the testis: Testicular pain may arise due to the conditions in testis or due to other organs (referred pain).
    • Swelling with or without redness: Swelling testicle could be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancereous).
    • Injury to testis
    • Absent testis
    • Male fertility problems
    • Non-testicular symptoms

Testis and Scrotum Problems


  • Developmental issues: Birth defects like absent testis, undescended testis, chromosomal abnormalities, absent vas and sexual differentiation; Cysts of epididymis: Blockage of the tubes leading to collection of fluid
  • Inflammatory and infections: (Called orchitis)
  • Viral: mumps, Coxsackie, Marburg, choriomeningitis, Dengue
  • Specific bacterial: Gonococcal, Syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species
  • Nonspecific: auto-immune, urinary infections
  • Trauma: Testicular Injury: Blunt or sharp
  • Torsion: Twisting of the cord and the testis
  • Hydrocele: Collection of fluid around the testis
  • Haematocele: Blood around the testis
  • Pyocele: Pus around the testis
  • Varicocele: Varicose veins (prominent and tortuous veins) of the spermatic cord
  • Male infertility: Inability to impregnate
  • Tumours: Benign and malignant tumours (Cancers) of the testis
  • Scrotal problems: Sebaceous cysts: The ducts of sebaceous glands get obstructed producing cysts.
  • Scrotal skin infection is similar to skin infection anywhere on the body.
  • Scrotal skin cancer is fortunately rare and used to be common in chimney sweepers (‘soot wart’)

Our Urological Services


Create Urology are specialists in the diagnosis and treatment of testis and scrotum conditions including:


We offer a range of services to our patients including our 1-stop clinics which include:

We also advise regular self examination of the testis. As testes are positioned in the scrotum, examination of testes is straightforward and easy. It takes just a couple of minutes for self-examination of the testis and scrotum.
To discuss a specific urological issue or to book an appointment, please contact us or call 020 7486 5566 today. Assessments are carried out on Saturdays and weekdays in our One-stop Clinic for all conditions of the testis and scrotum.

To discuss a specific urological issue or to book an appointment, please contact us or call us on 020 7486 5566 OR

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