Testis and Epididymis

  • Developmental: Birth defects like absent testis, undescended testis, chromosomal abnormalities, absent vas and sexual differentiation; Cysts of epididymis: Blockage of the tubes leading to collection of fluid
  • Inflammatory and infections: (Called orchitis) Viral: mumps, Coxsackie, Marburg, choriomeningitis, Dengue Specific bacterial: Gonococcal, Syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species Nonspecific: auto-immune, urinary infections
  • Trauma: Testicular Injury: Blunt or sharp
  • Torsion: Twisting of the cord and the testis
  • Hydrocele: Collection of fluid around the testis
  • Haematocele: Blood around the testis
  • Pyocele: Pus around the testis
  • Varicocele: Varicose veins (priminant and tortuous veins) of the spermatic cord
  • Infertility: Inability to impregnate
  • Tumours: Benign and malignant tumours (Cancers) of the testis
  • Scrotal problems: Sebaceous cysts: The ducts of sebaceous glands get obstructed producing cysts. Scrotal skin infection is similar to skin infection anywhere on the body. Scrotal skin cancer is fortunately rare and used to be common in chimney sweepers (‘soot wart’)


Ultrasound of the testis is a valuable investigation in the management of testicular symptoms. Other investigations may include ultrasound of kidneys and bladder. On occasions blood and urine tests are also required.

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